Sunday, June 30, 2013

African Kings, Pt. 6: 3 African Kingdoms You’ve Never Heard Of

Here's some interesting here. It about Three African Kingdoms that most people have NEVER heard of.

Read and learn, y'all!


This article is courtesy of


3 African Kingdoms You’ve Never Heard Of 

African history is as much a part of Black History month as Martin Luther King Jr and the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. When we African Americans limit ourselves to only studying our history here in America, we are ignoring over 25,ooo years of African history and knowledge of self. This post is part of our ongoing February series tagged #RealBlackHistory – the Black History that is NOT taught in the public fool school system.

The Powerful African Kingdom of Ashanti

B018 Yam Ceremony Ashanti 1817 Hitchcocks site 300x198 3 African Kingdoms Youve Never Heard Of (#RealBlackHistory)
Ashanti Empire yam ceremony - Artist depiction

The Ashanti Kingdom was impressive in both size, strength, and culture. Like most African cultures, the Ashanti were run by the women, reflected in the rights of selection performed by the senior woman of chiefly lineage.  Only she could choose who could be the next chief. The legal system was also as complicated as those in existence today, and communications were just as effective. The Ashanti invented the “talking drum”, a system of drums designed to communicate messages up to 200 miles (321.8 kilometers) away as rapidly as a telegraph could. But of all these accomplishments, none matched Ashanti military accomplishments. At its height, the Ashanti Army was 80,000 deep. 

Armament was primarily with firearms, but some historians hold that indigenous organization and leadership probably played a more crucial role in Ashanti successes.
From the 1600s and onward, European demand for gold and slaves on the coast, and Mande migrations from the north following the fall of the Songhai empire meant an explosion in trading activity in West Africa. A series of divided clans rose and fell, all of which tried to control the trade routes from the rich Akan gold fields to the African coast. To the south of the Akan gold fields, the rich and powerful states of Denkyira and Akwamu rose. 

By 1640, the Fante culture had settled on the coast and their states were beginning to be established. They became prominent in the slave trade with the Europeans. These two states flourished despite wars and mutual invasions until the 1700s when they were conquered and absorbed by the last and the greatest Akan states – the Ashanti Empire. The Ashanti empire began to rise as a superpower when they unified the clans of West Africa into one nation.

library webdossiers asante mapghana 3 African Kingdoms Youve Never Heard Of (#RealBlackHistory)
The Ashanti Empire at its Height

In 1699, the Ashanti King Osei Tutu (reigned from 1689 – 1717) the various Ashanti clans began to expand from the Ashanti heartland around the trading center of Kumasi. In 1701, they conquered the state of Denkyira. A period of great Ashanti expansion occurred during Okpu Ware’s reign (1717-1750). Between 1720 and 1735 , a new state – Akim – arose to control Akwamu’s territories. Ashanti conquered Akwamu and Akim in 1742, and followed with more conquests in the north, taking Gonja, Dagomba, and Nanumumba by 1750. Thus, by 1800, the Ashanti Empire had come to include much of modern-day Ghana, and parts of Togo and the Ivory Coast.

RDahomey. Warriors w bows1920 300x197 3 African Kingdoms Youve Never Heard Of (#RealBlackHistory)
Axum Warriors c.a. 1920

The 1800s were marked by commercial rivalry with the Fante states, their ally BRitain, and the Ashanti. The objective was to gain control of the valuable trade routes from the interior to the coast. In 1824, because they were growing more nervous about Ashanti power, they launched an attack on the empire under the guise of “liberating the Fante states”. This was the first of many Anglo-Asante Wars. The British were defeated, and the Ashanti Kingdom was undoubtedly at their most powerful. It was also at its largest; not only had they absorbed the Fante states to the West, they had also conquered the huge Mossi states of Mamprussi and Wa in the North.

The victory over the British, unfortunately, was not to be repeated. The British brought all the might and manipulation they could muster upon the Ashanti. The Brits gathered up as many Fande slaves as they could and sent them screaming into Ashanti territories. From 1824, British gunships and slaves were thrown into the bloody fray against the Ashanti until the empire finally collapsed  and became a British possession in 1902.

The Mysterious African Kingdom of Nok

African Kingdom of Nok Map 3 African Kingdoms Youve Never Heard Of (#RealBlackHistory)
African Kingdom of Nok Map

The mysterious Nok culture appeared in Nigeria around 1000 B.C. and vanished under unknown circumstances around 500 AD in the region of West Africa. They left behind a strange and unprecedented type of terra-cotta art that was both distinctly African, but unique in style and technique.

The Nok culture is the oldest in West Africa. Radiocarbon testings have dated Nok sites at between 2,000 and 2,500 years old. It’s likely that the original people of Nok migrated into today’s Nigeria following the climate change disaster, called the 5.9 kiloyear event.

Archaeologists assume the Kingdom of Nok disappeared when Islam came on the scene killing, expelling, and assimilating the original people. Others assume that climate change continued to push them into the South of Africa and across the seas. The similarity between the art of the Mayan civilization and the Nok (see the gallery below) and the rise of the Mayan culture right behind the fall of the Nok culture leaves us speculating until more scientific evidence can be uncovered.

Nok Sculpture 2 219x300 3 African Kingdoms Youve Never Heard Of (#RealBlackHistory)
nok sculpture 3 300x215 3 African Kingdoms Youve Never Heard Of (#RealBlackHistory)
A Nok Sculpture

statuette maya roi palenque 141418 3 African Kingdoms Youve Never Heard Of (#RealBlackHistory)

The African Kingdom of Axum: Daughter of Kemet

Axum 3 African Kingdoms Youve Never Heard Of (#RealBlackHistory)

The Kingdom of Axum arose as a direct result of the fall of the lats Ptolemaic dynasty at the beginning of the first millenium . Those members of Egypt fled south to conquer the Kingdom of Kush and formed Axum.

Under Emperor Ezana (fl 320–360), Axum became the first major empire to convert to Christianity, and was named by Mani (216–276) as one of the four great powers of his time along with Persia, Rome, and China. Axum’s ancient capital is found in northern Ethiopia. The Kingdom used the name “Ethiopia” as early as the 4th century, and is also the alleged resting place of the Ark of the Covenant (in the 16th century Cathedral of St. Mary of Zion) and the purported home of the Queen of Sheba. Axum was the first state ever to use the image of the cross on its coins, in around 300 A.D.

 Axum was a crucial participant in international trade, sending gold and ivory as far away as China and Java and as far North as modern-day France.

Like many other African kingdoms, Axum began its decline at the advent of Islam, but did not fall completely. Axum has remained Christian up to today, and the Axumites live on in the blood lines of today’s Ethiopians and Eritreans.

Aksum Empr Map 72dpi 3 African Kingdoms Youve Never Heard Of (#RealBlackHistory)
Map of the Axum Empire at its height

For a full list of African Kings and Kingdoms, I highly recommend checking out


To me, Black History doesn't end in February. 


More to come....

Thursday, June 27, 2013

African Kings, Pt. 5: African Kings & Kingdoms

To be honest, I never knew that there were Black African Kings in India. 

It tripped me out.

More research needs to be done into this very interesting subject.


This article is courtesy of


African Kings and Kingdoms of India

“…The darkest man is here the most highly esteemed and considered better than the others who are not so dark. Let me add that in very truth these people portray and depict their gods and their idols black and their devils white as snow. For they say that God and all the saints are black and the devils are all white. That is why they portray them as I have described.” – Marco Polo,after visiting the Pandyan Kingdom in 1288

This post will explore a topic that I didn’t even know existed, that of African Kings in India. More than a thousand years before the foundations of Greece and Rome, proud and industrious Black men and women known as the Dravidian erected a powerful civilization in the Indus Valley. From those origins, African Kings in India drove the region’s commerce, culture, and belief systems.

Moorish Black Kings of India – Pictures and Images – Rasta Livewire Microsof 2011 10 11 19 56 22 276x300 African Kings and Kingdoms of India

Dr. Clyde Winters, author of Afrocentrism: Myth or Science? African Kings and Kingdoms of India  writes:

“Ethiopians have had very intimate relations with Indians. In fact, in antiquity the Ethiopians ruled much of India. These Ethiopians were called the Naga. It was the Naga who created Sanskrit. A reading of ancient Dravidian literature which dates back to 500 BC, gives us considerable information on the Naga. In Indian tradition the Naga won central India from the Villavar (bowmen) and Minavar (fishermen).” 

He goes on to say “The Naga were great seamen who ruled much of India, Sri Lanka and Burma. To the Aryans they described as half man and snake. The Tamil knew them as warlike people who used the bow and noose. The earliest mention of the Naga, appear in the Ramayana , they are also mentioned in the Mahabharata. In the Mahabharata we discover that the Naga had the capital city in the Dekkan, and other cities spread between the Jumna and Ganges as early as 1300 BC. The Dravidian classic, the Chilappathikaran made it clear that the first great kingdom of India was Naganadu

The Naga probably came from Kush-Punt/Ethiopia. The Puntites were the greatest sailors of the ancient world. In the Egyptian inscriptions there is mention of the Puntite ports of Outculit, Hamesu and Tekaru, which corresponds to Adulis, Hamasen and Tigre.”

Even the legends of India revere the Black race that laid the foundation of their civilization, and the holiest books of India also affirm that enlightenment came from Ethiopia ((The first God of India was a dreadlocked black man called Shiva.)

Malik Andil Khan Sultan (reigned from 893 to 895)

Malik Andil Khan Sultan, the hater that killed Khoja Barbak, changed his name to Saifu-d-din Abul Muzaffar Firuz Shah after assuming power, and actually proved to be a wise king. According to coins found bearing his name, he  reigned from 893 to 895. He secured peace and comfort for his subjects, was “matchless in his generosity”, and  “bestowed on the poor the treasures and largess of past sovereigns, who had hoarded the same with considerable exertions and pains.” A story from the Bibliotheca India illustrates his empathy for the poor:

The members of Government did not like this generosity towards the poor, and used to say to one another: “This Abyssinian does not appreciate the value of the money which has fallen into his hands, without toil and labour. We ought to set about discovering a means by which he might be taught the value of money, and to withhold his hand from useless extravagance and lavishness.” Then they collected that treasure on the floor, that the king might behold it with his own eyes, and appreciating its value, might attach value to it. When the king saw the treasure, he enquired: ” Why is this treasure left in this place?” The members of Government said: “This is the same treasure that you allotted to the poor.” The king said: “How can this amount suffice? Add another lak to it.”

Today, you can still visit a mosque, a tower and a reservoir in the city of Gaur erected by him.

Jamal al-Din Yaqut (ca 1200)

Jamal began his rise to power in Delhi as a habshi, one of many enslaved Africans of East African descent frequently employed by Muslim monarchs as mercenaries and members of royal security teams. Shortly after his employ began, the then reigning sovereign Queen Raziya (1236- 1240) the first female monarch of Delhi took a liking to him. He was subsequently promoted to a royal courtier and later rose to occupy the important post of superintendent of the royal stables.

She awarded him the honorific title Amir-al-Khayl (Amir of Horses) and later the much higher Amir-al-Umara (Amir of Amirs), much to the discontent of of the Turkish nobility who at the time also had dealings in the region. Already resented for being a woman ruler by the Muslim nobles and clerics, Razia’s proximity to an Abyssinian slave (considered racially inferior to the Turkish nobles who ruled the Sultanate) alienated the nobility and clerics and soon provoked open rebellion and conspiracy. Jamal al-Din Yaqut was eventually killed off by his haters.

Malik Sarwar (1394 – 1403)

Malik Sarwar, also described as a Habashi, became the governor of Jaunpur, a sultanate close to Delhi. Under the title of Malik-us-Shark (king of the east) he captured the Jaunpur province. According to the History of Medieval India, Part I (S.Chand& Co, 2007),  ”In 1389, Malik Sarwar received the title of Khajah-i-Jahan. In 1394, he was appointed as the governor of Jaunpur and received his title of Malik-us-Sharq from Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah II Tughluq (1394 – 1413). Soon, he established himself as an independent ruler and took the title of Atabak-i-Azam. He suppressed the rebellions in Etawah, Koil and Kanauj. He was also able to bring under his control Kara, Awadh, Sandila, Dalmau, Bahraich, Bihar and Tirhut. The Rai of Jajnagar and the ruler of Lakhnauti acknowledged his authority and sent him a number of elephants. 

After his death, he was succeeded by his adopted son Malik Qaranfal, who took the title of Mubarak Shah”
Malik Sarwar and his five successors namely Malik Mubarak Quranfal, Ibrahim Shah, Mahmud Shah, Bhikhan Khan and lastly Hussain Shah are called Sharqi kings who ruled the kingdom of Jaunpur for little less than a century. They were all without exceptions black Indo-Africans otherwise called Habashis or the Ethiopians in India. 

This was the period of peace and prosperity in the history of Jaunpur witnessing remarkable achievements in the fields of art, architecture, education, trade and commerce.

 Malik Ambar (1550 – ?)

The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean World Microsoft Internet Explorer pro 2011 10 11 19 57 47 189x300 African Kings and Kingdoms of India
Malik Ambar, ca 1620 - Artist Unknown

One of the most famous among the Indo-Africans was the celebrated Malik Ambar (1550-1626). Malik Ambar, whose original name was Shambu was born around 1550 in Harar, Ethiopia. After his arrival in India, he was able to raise a formidable army and achieve great power in the west Indian realm of Ahmadnagar. Ambar was a brilliant diplomat, tactician, and administrator. In 1590, Ambar broke away from Bijapur and built an independent mercenary army of over 1500 African, Arab and local Dakani men.

He eventually joined the state of Ahmadnagar and later imprisoned King Murtaza II, naming himself regent minister. Ambar promoted minorities of various ethnic groups to key positions and implemented financial, educational and agricultural reforms. Ferista, an contemporary Arab historian, praised Ambar: “he appears to have been the most enlightened financier of whom we read in Indian history.” Ambar also organized a 60,000 horse army and successfully beat back the Moguls for the next 20 years. The Moguls could not conquer Dakan until after his death. 

Thats gangsta.

In the 16th century, there were many other powerful Haaishi in the political scene of India. Chingiz Khan, the prime minister to Nizam mul-Mulk Bani, King of Ahmadnagar in 1575, was of African origin. After the king’s death, the king’s son Murtaza I led a successful revolt with several Habshis against his mother’s claim to power.  In 1595, during the reign of Murtaza II, the prime minister Abhangar Khan was also a Habashi.
Today, the Habshi communities have been diminished due to widespread intermarriage with other Muslims, but their influence is undeniably imprinted on the faces of the people there today, as well as the local architecture.

The men mentioned above are just a few of the Abysinnian, Habasi, Ethiopian, and Dravadian rulers, leaders, and wise men that shaped todays India. Their existence should reinforce the fact that MORE RESEARCH NEEDS TO BE DONE, so that we have the irreftable proof of what we already knew; that the African man and woman brought the light of civilization to the world.


It's a trip what you'll find on the web, isn't it.

More to come...

Monday, June 24, 2013

African Kings, Pt. 4: Thutmoses III (Yeah, he was Black, too!)

Here's some Ancient Egyptian History, which is African History as well. 

I know that many think that The Ancient Egyptians looked like Charlton Heston, but that's Hollywood's version. 

Not the truth.

"Seek and ye shall find."


This article is courtesy of


Thutmose III

Thutmose III is one of the baddest Black men ever to walk the Earth, and passed on a divine legacy to Black men and women today. His leadership and military conquests puts Alexander the Great to shame, his administrative abilities makes Washington D.C. look like a middle school student council, and his innovative ability were light years ahead of any other thinker for centuries following his reign.

One of the most brilliant and successful military rulers ever to live, Thutmose III never lost a battle (unlike Napoleon and Alexander the Great). As an accomplished horseman, archer, and athlete, he personally led his troops at the head of battle formations.

Thutmose III’s Rise to Power

Thutmose III sTATUE Thutmose III
A Well-known Statue of Thutmose III
I have given you power and victory over all the nations
you have conquered the rebel hordes as I commanded,
the Earth in its length and breadth, the peoples of the West and of the East are your subjects
no one was subjected to your majesty without myself having been your guide, so that you would succeed.
All the peoples come, bringing tribute to you on thier backs, bowing before you as I have ordained.
– Karnak Stela paying homage to Thutmose III
Thutmose III was the son of Thutmose II by a secondary wife, Iset. When Thutmose II died Thutmose III was too young to rule, so Hatshepsut (Thutmose II’s wife) became his regent, and declared herself to be the pharaoh . Thutmosis III had little power over the empire while Hatshepsut exercised her power as the ruler of Kemet. When he reached a suitable age and demonstrated the capability, she appointed him to head her armies. There, he proved himself to be a talented horseman, archer, athlete, and strategist.
For the most part, the states that paid tribute to Kemet during the reign of Hatshepsut were cooperative and peaceful, and there were no record of wars during her rule. However, when Hatshepsut died on the tenth day of the sixth month of Thutmose III’s twenty first year, the king of Kadesh advanced his army to Megiddo in an act of war. This would be Thutmose III’s first test as Pharaoh.

The War at Megiddo

megiddo map large 300x111 Thutmose III

As is often the case when a new king comes to the throne subject nations are inclined to test his resolve. The King of Kadesh was joined in his defiance with the Mesopotamians and the Syrians, who declared themselves free of Egypt as soon as Hatshepsut died.

Thutmose didnt waste a moment, and immediately advanced his army to the border city of Gaza, which had remained loyal to Egypt. (These events are all well documented because Thutmose’s private secretary, Tjaneni, kept a journal that was later copied and engraved onto the walls of the temple of Karnak.)
Thutmose understood the value of logistics and lines of supply, the necessity of rapid movement and sudden surprise attack; Megiddo was his first objective because it was a key point and had to be taken at all costs.There were two routes to Megiddo: a long, easy and level road around the hills, which the enemy expected Thutmose to take, and a route which was narrow, difficult and cut through the hills. 

His generals advised the new Pharaoh to take the easy road through the hills, saying “horse must follow behind horse and man behind man also, and our vanguard will be engaged while our rearguard is at Aaruna without fighting”.

But Thutmose’s reply to this was “As I live, as I am the beloved of Ra and praised by my father Amon, I will go on the narrow road. Let those who will, go on the roads you have mentioned; and let anyone who will, follow my Majesty” Now, when the soldiers heard this bold speech they shouted with one accord We follow thy Majesty whithersoever thy Majesty goes”.

Thutmose led his men on foot through the hills “horse behind horse and man behind man, his Majesty showing the way by his own footsteps”. It took about twelve hours for the front of the formation to reach the valley on the other side and another seven hours before the last troops emerged. Thutmose himself waited at the head of the pass until each and every man was safely through.

The sudden and unexpected appearance of Egyptians in their rear forced the allies to make a hasty re-deployment of their troops. The King of Meggiddo had slowly built up a coalition of defiant nations. By the TIme Thutmose had moved on Meggido, there are said to have been over 300 allied kings gathered, each with his own army, an immense force.

Thutmose was fearless, even in the face of 300 allied crowns, but he was far from stupid. Rather than attacking, he ordered his army to dig a moat around Megiddo and surround the area with a fortification consisting of a strong fence made of stakes driven into the ground. The king gave orders to let nobody through except those who surrendered at the gate.

For seven months, the kings and their armies were starved, harassed and held hostage in the walls of Meggido. Thutmose’s strategy worked, and the vanquished kings sent out their sons and daughters to sue for peace. “All those things with which they had come to fight against my Majesty, now they brought them as tribute to my Majesty, while they themselves stood upon their walls giving praise to my Majesty, and begging that the Breath of Life be given to their nostrils.”

Those who surrendered made an oath of allegiance to their King, Thutmose III: “We will not again do evil against Menkheper Ra our good Lord, in our lifetime, for we have seen his might, and he has deigned to give us breath.”

thutmose karnak Thutmose III
A Thutmose carving at Karnak portraying his conquest of Asiatic aggressors.

This single campaign made Thutmose a legend, and drastically changed the political situation in the ancient Near East. By taking Megiddo, Thutmose gained control of all of northern Canaan, and the Syrian princes were obligated to send tribute and their own sons as hostages to Egypt. Beyond the Euphrates, the Assyrian, Babylonian, and Hittite kings all gave Thutmose gifts, which he alleged to be “tribute” when he recorded it on the walls of Karnak.
Thutmose III in the Bible
You may have recognized some of the cities above from the Bible. The length of Thutmose III’s reign is known to the day thanks to information found in the tomb of the court official Amenemheb. Amenemheb records Thutmose III’s death to his master’s fifty-fourth regnal year, on the thirtieth day of the third month of Peret.
The day of Thutmose III’s accession is known to be I Shemu day 4, and astronomical observations can be used to establish the exact dates of the beginning and end of the king’s reign from April 24, 1479 BC to March 11, 1425 BC respectively. According to 1 Kings 6:1 the Exodus took place in 1448 b.C. That is, 477 years before Solomon became king in 971 b.C. This would make Thutmoses III pharaoh during the Exodus.

The Height of Egyptian Empire

After Meggido, Thutmose III conducted sixteen campaigns in Palestine, Syria and Nubia and his treatment of the conquered was always humane. During his fifth military campaign, the conquest of Syria, Thutmose brilliantly used Naval power to secretly move his troops around the area to strike at the enemy where they least expected it. In fact, THutmose III may be the first military leader in history to effectively employ Naval power. Once the rebellions were crushed, Thutmose III found that by taking family members of these key people to Egypt as hostages, he could drastically increase their loyalty to him. According to Cheikh Anta Diop, by the sixteenth century B.C., the XVIIIth Egyptian Dynasty, under Thutmose III had effectively conquered the whole eastern Mediterranean and all of western Asia.

“In total, 110 foreign states were conquered and integrated into the Egyptian Empire. In one year, according to Thutmose III’s Hymn of Triumph, the Egyptian treasury collected 3,500 kilos of gold, of which 9/10ths came from the tribute paid by vassals. Western Asia was divided into administrative districts placed under the authority of Egyptian governors, charged with collecting the tributes, or annual taxes, that all these defeated states had to pay to the Egyptian treasury.

In some towns, the conquered princes were purely and simply replaced by Egyptian Generals, and the administration was direct. These conquered states kept small territorial guards trained by the Egyptian officers. But the defense of the territory at large rested on the Egyptian Army itself, so much so that the Phonecian towns would protest when they felt the Egyptian troops in charge of their defense were insufficient. Egyptian garrisons were stationed at strategic points, important towns and ports. Fourteen hundred years before Rome, Egypt created the first centralized empire in the world.”

He goes on to describe the achievements made by Thutmose III’s administration:

“Royal messengers went through different regions of the empire delivering messages from the Pharaoh. The generals were in charge of regularly making inspection tours in the conquered territory. A royal postal service circulates over roads created by the Egyptian administration, staked out with military stations and water tanks for resupply. The king maintained personal relations with his vassals and each year made inspection trips throughout the whole empire: the children of vassal princes were taken as “hostages” and educated Egyptian style, at the court of the Egyptian emperor, in order to teach them Egyptian manners and tastes and to assimilate them to Pharaonic culture and civilization.

A true ministry of foreign affairs, in charge of relations with foreign countries, was created at Thebes, and also included a special chancellery that was to centralize correspondence with the agents of the Egyptian administration in the provinces, with the vassal cities and princes, a correspondence carefully preserved in the archives of the department and part of which was discovered at Tel al-Armarna.

The power of the Pharaoh over the vassals was absolute. The vassal had to be obedient and faithful and had to execute orders, whatever they might be. He had to respect the Pharaoh as God, because, according to the diplomatic formulary imposed on the vassal, the Pharaoh is his King, his Sun, at whose feet he bows seven times and seven times.” 

– From Civilization or Barbarism: An Authentic Anthropology

 Thutmose III
Thutmose III’s impact upon Egyptian culture changed the game up. He was a national hero who was revered long after his time. Indeed his name was held in awe even to the last days of Egyptian history. Besides his military achievements he carried out more than 50 major construction projects at Karnak, including a number of obelisks. Two of these obelisks can be found on the Embankment in London and in Central Park in New York. Even today, Thutmose III has left his mark on the most powerful nations on the planet.

Thutmose III died on Year 54, III Peret day 30 of his reign after ruling Egypt for 53 years, 10 months, and 26 days. He was buried in the Valley of the Kings, along with Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, Thutmose I, Thutmose II, Ramesses I, Seti I, Ramesses II, and Ramesses IX, as well as the twenty-first dynasty pharaohs Pinedjem I, Pinedjem II, and Siamun.

What is Valley of the Kings Thutmose III
Valley of the Kings, Final resting place of Thutmose III until the site was pillaged by European explorers

Thutmose III is a part of your legacy that should be studied, adopted, taught, and remembered. We Black men and women today are the descendants of the most brilliant and successful warriors, administrators, and Emperors in the history of mankind. 

Its time to start acting like it.


Great stuff, isn't it?

More to come, y'all...

Friday, June 21, 2013

African Kings, Pt. 3: Hannibal (Yeah, he was Black!)

I know that many people think that Hannibal Barca was white, but he wasn't. 

He was a Black African Warrior-King who came from a long line of African warriors. His father was the African leader and warrior Hamilcar Barca.


This article is courtesy of


Hannibal, Carthage, and History’s First White on Black Genocide

Hannibal Pic Hannibal, Carthage, and History’s First White on Black Genocide #RealBlackHistory
Hannibal of Carthage 

Hannibal of Carthage was one of the baddest Black men to come out of Africa. His military conquests are still the stuff of legend more than 2,000 years later. Most Black men and women have never heard of Hannibal, and those who have do not realize that he was as Black as the soil of the Nile. While white folks mentally masturbate over movies like 300 and Troy, the story of one of the most epic military geniuses of all times goes untold. Until now.

The African Kingdom of Carthage

Carthage Phoenician city Hannibal, Carthage, and History’s First White on Black Genocide #RealBlackHistory
An artist's rendition of the City of Carthage

The city-state of Carthage was founded on the North African coast in 814 BC by a mixed population of the survivors of the Saharan ecological collapse and the Nubians (meaning the people of Carthage were Black as hell). Anthropologists argue that the people of Carthage were actually Phonecians, but genetic evidence suggests otherwise. The Carthaginians were no more Phonecian than the Ancient Egyptians were Arab. The Kingdom was a matriarchal one – meaning women held authority. The Carthaginian Republic grew to become the longest-lived and largest state in the ancient Mediterranean. By 600 B.C., Carthage had become self-governing, reached the height of its power, and was a Mediterranean powerhouse. The land was rich in gold, ivory, and salt, and the people of Carthage were skilled shipbuilders, tradesmen, and merchants who knew commerce.

Greece and Rome, greedy for control of Carthage’s resources and trade routes, constantly struggled with Carthage over territory. Although the Carthaginians refused to enter armed conflict and insisted on an agreement with the Greeks, the Greeks ignored the truce and invaded Carthage in a sneak attack around 310 B.C.

To regain their sovereignty, Carthage fought four brutal wars against Greece and Rome – driving out the Greeks in the first war in 306 B.C. The Romans stepped in to pick up where Greece left off in 264 B.C. – launching three “Punic Wars” against Carthage. Like most wars, White powers hungry for natural resources and riches unleashed atrocities against Black men that where unprecedented. The defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War gave Rome complete control of the Mediterranean sea.

It was in response to this white aggression that one of the baddest Black men to ever live rose up to bring Rome to the brink of destruction. n an age where wars and conflicts lasted decades, Hannibal’s army had all but annihilated Rome in only 2 short years after beginning his campaign. His was one of the most epic military campaigns ever launched, and was so intelligently executed that tacticians still study his technical and tactical proficiency.

Hannibal’s father, Hamilcar Barca, was the leading Carthaginian commander and his brothers were all commanders during the during the First Punic War. Hannibal was determined to succeed where they had failed with a superior military strategy.

Hannibal’s Military Strategy

Hannibal invasion map Hannibal, Carthage, and History’s First White on Black Genocide #RealBlackHistory

I swear so soon as age will permit…I will use fire and steel to arrest the destiny of Rome.” – Hannibal

While preparing for war, Hannibal developed a strategy based on the fact that Rome had complete control of the oceans. This meant instead of being able to take ships straight across the Mediterranean and attack Rome from the East, he would have to take his troops along the most difficult and unsuspected route; through France (Gaul) over the Alps and attack Rome from the North. Since the Romans believed the Alps were impossible to pass an army through, they would be taken completely by surprise.

The only animals capable of surviving the journey was the African elephant, and so with 40,000 foot soldiers, 5,000 war elephants,  and 12,000 horsemen Hannibal made the trek. To keep his army together through what was to be a miserable march into Rome, Hannibal ruthlessly exploited the strengths, weaknesses, and self interests of the men that he led; at times promising the riches of Italy to one group, and at other times promising death for failure to another group. His psychological strategy worked – a year after starting out, Hannibal had lost more than half his men during the march, but still managed to surprise and defeat a well fed, well organized Roman infantry at the Battle of Trebbia in Northern Rome.

Hannibal didn’t let time or his laziness get the best of him; he quickly moved to Cannae, where he surprised the Romans yet again, and turned the strength of the Roman battle formation into a weakness using an envelopment tactic. He encircled the square unit which eliminated the Roman numerical advantage by shrinking the surface area where combat could occur. In other words, the men inside the square could do nothing while the men on the outer sides had to fight off attacks. Whenever the square formation would try to charge through one side of the circle, Hannibal’s troops would move, open up, and encircle them once again. 

As a result, even though Hannibal’s force was inferior to that of his foe, he won. Hannibal’s army managed to surround and kill or capture nearly 70,000 Romans. In battle after battle, Hannibal defeated a much larger and more sophisticated military by understanding the strengths, weaknesses, and the environment of all the parties involved. He knew the minds and hearts of the people he fought for, with, and against.
Hannibal’s vision of military affairs, derived from experience gained alongside his father, stretched over most of the Greco-Roman world of his time. His vision gave rise to his grand strategy of conquering Rome by opening a northern front and subduing allied city-states on the peninsula rather than by attacking Rome directly – a kind of proxy war. The alpine invasion of Italy was a military operation that would shake the Mediterranean World of 218 BC with repercussions for more than two decades. It was a world war in the sense that it involved about three-quarters of the population of the entire Punic-Greco-Roman world and few people living in the Mediterranean were able to escape it. Virtually every family in Rome lost a member or members in the swath of destruction brought down on them by Hannibal and his Carthaginian armies.
Rome took a page from Hannibal’s playbook and invaded Carthage in 203 BC. The action placed Hannibal’s homeland in dire threat, and he was recalled from Rome to ward off the new threat. His arrival immediately restored the dominance of Carthage’s national guard, which placed him in command. The war was so savage and both sides so decimated that by 202 BC, both sides were suing for peace. Negotiations were shaky due to Roman allegations of “Punic Faith,” referring to the war-like nature of the North Africans. (Keep in mind, Greece and Rome attacked CARTHAGE first!!)

Rome and Carthage worked out a peace plan whereby Carthage could keep its African territory but would lose its overseas empire. Also, Carthage was to reduce its fleet and pay a war restitution to Rome. But when Carthage captured a stranded Roman fleet in the Gulf of Tunes and stripped it of supplies, negotiations fell apart. Rumors had it that the Romans actually set up the stranded fleet to provoke the Carthaginians. Fearing that war was about to pop off again, Hannibal returned to Rome with his army. The decisive battle at Zama soon followed, and Hannibal was finally defeated.

Hannibal is Defeated

Hannibal Invasion Routes Hannibal, Carthage, and History’s First White on Black Genocide #RealBlackHistory
The Four Phases of the Second Punic War

Once Hannibal had been defeated, Rome totally invaded Carthage – Rome decided that a military victory wasn’t crushing enough. It pronounced a curse on the ancient city, and dispatched mercenaries to kill every man, woman, and child within the city walls. Priests sprinkled salt over the fertile Carthaginian soil so that no plant would grow, and no animal could drink the ground water. The Romans completely destroyed the culture, writings, and technology of Carthage, leaving behind nothing but ashes and sand.

According to scholar Cheik Anta Diop, the Romans gave themselves permission to commit atrocities with propaganda. The destroyed people deserved their fate because they where impious, sinister, lustful, and incapable of promoting progress. Romans were encouraged to forget Carthage, and later generations were taught that the Carthaginians – not the Romans – were the real savages. By twisting the story around, Rome could go on with a clear conscience.

The brutal destruction of the entire ethnic group that was Carthage would be the first in a long line of white savagery.


Here's another great article on Hannibal below, courtesy of


Hannibal Barca of Carthage History’s Greatest General

Hannibal Barca photo
Coin bearing the image of Hannibal and his famed battalion of elephants

AFRICANGLOBE – In 247 B.C., the year Hannibal Barca was born, the Carthage empire was about 500 years old. Known as one of the greatest strategist in military history, the battles of Hannibal would strike a turning point in the history of the continent that would be called Africa.

Carthage had been settled by Phoenicians in North Africa near the current Tunis. In his 1961 work, French Historian Gabriel Audisio comments that he considered “Hannibal to be neither a Phoenician, nor a Carthaginian, nor a Punic, but a North African… The majority of the Punic populace seems to have had African ancestry.”

The Carthaginians, according to Audisio’s research, mixed freely with the native populations of North Africa. The Punic of North Africa seem to have been a mix between the Phoenicians and native North Africans, the Berbers. The Phoenicians were a Semitic people said to have migrated from north of Palestine into Northern Africa, spreading their dominion throughout the Mediterranean regions. They were primarily known as merchant traders with an economy tied to the sea trades.
There is no picture of Hannibal in existence today. 

The coin above is frequently presented by commentators as a representation of Hannibal and his legacy of tamed elephants. While this writer was not able to find authority that the coins were made contemporaneously during or near the life of Hannibal — which was more than 2,000 years ago — the existence of such coinage during some point during our common age is no surprise in light of Hannibal’s historical legacy.

What we do have are descriptions of Hannibal by commentators of his time. According to the Roman historian Levy of the first century of our era, Hannibal was “fearless, utterly prudent in danger, indefatigable, able to endure heat and cold, controlled in eating habits, unpretentious in dress, willing to sleep wrapped in military cloak, a superb rider and horseman.” He was the son of the Carthage general Hamilcar Barca. There is no knowledge of his mother in the history records, not even her name. He had two brothers: Hasdrubal resided in Spain and Maharbal was captain of Hannibal’s calvary.

Carthage and Rome were at war during the First Punic War (264-241 B.C.). Both empires were seeking supremacy over the Mediterranean. Hannibal’s father, Hamilcar Barca, general of the Carthaginian arm, was infuriated about the western Mediterranean losses of Sicily and Sardinia. When Hannibal was 17 years old, however, his father was killed in an ambush in Spain, which was primarily under the rule of the North African empire. Hannibal would son step fully into his military career.

Hannibal the Great Strategist

Carthage Rome Map photo
A map showing the Carthaginian and roman empires

In October 218 B.C., during the Second Punic War, Hannibal had arrived at the Alps. His soldiers are said to have stretched for more than eight miles at the Alps, the foothills of the Roman Empire. Hannibal’s army of 100,000 men would trek and fight 1,500 miles to arrive at the Alps from Spain.

Hannibal armies included Numidians, North Africans from an area roughly where Algeria now draws its boundaries. The Numidians were known as master horsemen who could guide their horses with their knees, leaving their hands free to use swords and throw javelins.They had fought attacks from European tribes like the Gauls.

Hannibal is said to have given this speech to the army of men who had survived and crossed the swift-flowing Rhone river:
“Why are you afraid?… The greater part of our journey is accomplished. We have surmounted the Pyrenees; we have crossed the Rhone, that mighty river, in spite of the opposition of thousands of Gauls and the fury of the river itself. Now we have the Alps in sight. On the other side of those mountains lies Italy…. Does anyone imagine the Alps to be anything but what they are–lofty mountains. No part of the earth reaches the sky, or is insurmountable to mankind. The Alps produce and support living things. If they are passable by a few men, they are passable to armies.”
Hannibal lost half of his army in the first two weeks into the Alps. Landslides were touched off by mountain tribes. Men died during hand battle with tribesmen. Starvation and disease were also companions of the embattled lot. Polybus, a Greek historian and contemporary to Hannibal, described Hannibal’s arrival to the Po Valley with about 26,000 men. At the Po Valley, Hannibal is said to have made this speech:
“Soldiers! You have now surmounted not only the ramparts of Italy, but also Rome. You are entering friendly country inhabited by people who hate the Romans as much as we do. The rest of the journey will be smooth and downhill, and, after one, or at most a second battle, you will have the citadel and capital of Italy in your possession.”
Commentators have speculated on why Hannibal spoke these words because the men were about to face the most difficult part of the journey. Friends did not await in the Po Valley. Here, the Roman army would meet the men in battle. In retrospect, considering how far the men had come, there really was no going back at this point. The Carthaginians believed that Rome was considering an invasion of Africa. Hannibal believed he had to act through an overland attack on Roman to save Carthage. He would spend 15 years in Italy, winning many battles — such as the Battle of Cannae where he lost 6,000 troops to Rome’s 70,000 troops.

We know Hannibal did not succeed, but are astonished by how close he came to success. The second of the Punic Wars was over. When Hannibal eventually retreated with his army to Carthage, his army was defeated by Scipio Africanus in the Battle of Zama.  Always sought by the Romans, when Hannibal was about the age of 64 and to be taken prisoner, he took poison and is recorded to have stated:
“Let us now put an end to the great anxiety of the Romans who have thought it too lengthy and too heavy a task to wait for the death of a hated old man.”


This man is REVERED as the most intelligent stategist in World History and his TRUE story needs to be told!

More to come...

Wednesday, June 19, 2013

African Kings, Pt. 2: Shaka Zulu

Here's another African King that some may be familiar with, since they did a mini-series on him years ago.

Just to let ya know, that Shaka Zulu was not only a powerful king, but he was ruthless as well. As many kings throughout world history have been.


This article is courtesy of


Shaka Zulu

One of the most epic Generals in military history, and one of the most ruthless figures in Black history – the story of Shaka Zulu is little known, but should never be forgotten. 

Who is Shaka Zulu, what did he achieve, and why is he an important in this day and age? Read on.

The Origins of Shaka Zulu

In 1787, a woman named Nandi was courted by, made love to, and became pregnant by Prince Senzangakhona, then the heir to the throne of a small and insignificant South African tribe called the Zulu.

Nandi was a proud woman, and demanded that she become a royal wife to prevent her child being born a bastard. But when the royal council to the prince heard of his infidelity (he already had an arranged wife), they blasted her claim and even said that she wasn’t pregnant, but suffering from parasites. 

Soon after Shaka Zulu was born Nandi was cast out of her village, forced to wander the wilderness and foreign lands.
Understand that back then, a person who was expelled from their tribe was almost always condemned to death; exposed to the elements, forced to wander the plains, and fend for themselves. Nandi suffered the death of her mother, (Shaka’s grandmother, who followed Nandi and Shaka, but was too old to survive on the South African plains), fought off slave traders, and nearly died of starvation and fatigue while keeping Shaka alive.

As a child, Shaka was smaller than other children his age, but had an explosive temper. This combination led to regular fights with other boys in the villages that gave them refuge, and on
more than one occasion, Shaka Zulu and his mother were forced out of the tribe in order to keep the peace. 

These early memories of rejection, inhospitality and abuse left Shaka thirsting for revenge.

Shaka Shaka Zulu
Shaka Zulu, from the groundbreaking 1987 mini-series

Years passed before Senzangakhona reached out to his son. Every year, as part of Zulu culture, the boys that have reached manhood are summoned before the king to pledge their loyalty and take up arms as part of the military. Messengers were sent out to Dingiswayo, chief of the village in which Shaka and his mother had taken refuge, requesting that a teenage Shaka return to take part in the ceremony. Shaka Zulu agreed, returned, and stood before his father with the rest of his emDlatsheni iNtanga (age-group). 

But instead of pledging his allegiance, Shaka swore before his father that he would have his revenge and, as the firstborn son of the Zulu king, take the throne by force.

Military Career

Shaka returned to Dingiswayo and joined his military with the purpose of perfecting his knowledge of warfare and his skills on the battlefield. At first, with little influence and a weak reputation, Shaka was able to recruit very few to his cause of unifying the land under his leadership and control. But in battle after battle, Shaka Zulu proved to be a relentlessly violent and proficient warrior. His valor and intelligence led to his promotion to the rank of General.

During this period of time, while Shaka led campaigns to unify smaller tribes into Dingiswayo’s growing nation, Senzangakhona died of an unknown illness, placing one of Shaka’s half brothers on the throne. 

Upon hearing this news, Shaka and an elite unit of his warriors raced back to the Zulu lands, where he massacred all the members of Senzangakhona’s leadership (including his half-brother), and finally claimed the Zulu throne. It took 20 years for Shaka Zulu to realize his objective.

Legacy of Shaka Zulu

zulu warriers in south africa c. 1890 Shaka Zulu
Zulu warriors in South Africa, c. 1890

As leader of the Zulus, with iron-willed ferociousness, Shaka Zulu transformed the small and insignificant tribe of his father into a mighty nation of over 80,000 highly trained warriors and
with that war machine he extended his borders and influence over most of southern Africa. 

At the time of his death, Shaka Zulu ruled over 250,000 people in a land area greater than that of Napoleon’s, and could muster more than 50,000 warriors at any given time. In 2008, a statue of Shaka Zulu was erected in his honor in Glencoe, South Africa as a testament to his greatness.


Like I said, he was NO JOKE. 

More to come...

Sunday, June 16, 2013

African Kings, Pt. 1: Askia the Great

Since it's been so long since I posted, I thought I'd hit everyone with some African History.

Many people think that Africa was/is savage and uncivilized and has never had any civilization at all.

This series will prove otherwise.

To start it off, I profile Askia The Great!


This article is courtesy of


Askia The Great

askia Askia The Great

The 15th and 16th centuries have been called the Age of Empires. We are taught in public schools about how Spain and Portugal explored the world’s seas and colonized large parts of Africa and the New World. The Mughal Emperor Akbar extended the power of the Mughal Empire to cover most of the Indian sub continent, and China was a world superpower during the Ming Dynasty. 

But we are rarely told of the far more powerful and influential empires that arose to conquer large swaths of the African homeland. One such empire was that of the Songhai Empire, which reached its full scope, strength, and power under the leadership of Askia the Great.

Rise to Power

The man who would later be known as Askia the Great was born Muhammad Toure in a region along the Senegal River around 1443 A.D. Muhammad Toure was born to the sister of Emperor Sunni Ali Ber, the first king of the newly created Songhai Empire, who was then at the height of his conquests.  His forces had swept across west Africa, had built and fortified many cities across the region, including Timbuktu, expanded the empire’s Naval force, and had expanded the borders of his empire to engulf the regions formerly occupied by the empires of Ghana and Mali.

Little is known about the life of Muhammad Toure prior to his military career, but we do know that his reputation was that of an intelligent and ambitious statesman, a wise tactician, and a man of great spiritual fortitude.

When Sunni Ali Ber died in November of 1492 after mysteriously drowning in the Niger River, his son, Sonni Baru, naturally ascended to the throne. Sonni was nothing like his father; weak, liberal, and incompetent. When Sonni Baru denied Islam as his religion, Islamic fundamentalists, led by Muhammad, began a violent campaign to overthrow Sonni Baru. During the campaign, those loyal to Baru ridiculed Muhammad and said of him a si tya, or “he will not be.”
Two decisive battles were fought to decide the fate of the empire. Over 150,000 men fought in this war with majority of them having been wounded or killed in what became one of the bloodiest wars in west African history. In the Battle of Anfao on April 12, 1493, Muḥammad’s forces, though inferior in number, finally defeated Sonni Baru’s forces Muḥammad assumed the royal title of Askia (or Askiya) in order to ridicule those who said of him a si tya, or “he will not be.” Legend also has it that the name Askia, which translates directly as “forceful one” was screamed out by Sunni Ali Ber’s daughter after hearing the news of Askia’s victory.
Regardless, the name Askia became the name of the dynasty founded by Muhammad Toure, and the title that he and all his followers and successors assumed.

Reorganizing the Empire

askiasonghai map Askia The Great

Askia’s reign began with the re-organization of the administration of the empire. He first selected members of his family to occupy the newly-created positions of director of finance, justice, interior, protocol, agriculture, waters and forests, and of “tribes of the white race”. To ensure the loyalty of his chiefs, Emperor Askia chose the daughters of his chiefs as wives, and married off his own daughters and nieces to generals, judges, ministers, and officials within the government. By doing this, majority of the prominent families within the empire were in some way related to him.
Even though Askia was tolerant of other faiths (his empire encompassed traditional African faiths, Judaism, and several Islamic sects), he established Islam as the official faith of the nobility. He consulted with Muslim scholars at Timbuktu, and began an aggressive campaign to produce the most well educated citizens in the Muslim world. Ultimately, his efforts led to the success of Mahmoud Kati, who published Tarik al-Fattah and Abdul-Rahman as-Sadi, author of The History of the Sudan (an ancient reference to Africa, not political Sudan). These are two history books that are indispensable to present-day scholars reconstructing African history in the Middle Ages.

Under Askia Mohammad, scholarship flourished in Timbuktu and throughout the region. In the rest of the empire, Askia encouraged literacy, academic proficiency, and allowed scholars and students to study abroad in Europe and Asia. The knowledge that they brought back turned the Songhai Empire fueled the economic, scientific, and military innovations that would later lead to the golden age of the empire. Likewise, students from all over the world traveled to Timbuktu to study scrolls so old that some were said to be remnants of the Great Library of Alexandria.
He divided the empire into four parts (identified by the territories of Timbuktu, Jenne, Masina and Taghaza) and chose a viceroy to preside over each. The provinces were then grouped into regions, which were administered by regional governors. An advisory board of ministers supported each regional governor. The nucleus of the bureaucracy was Askia himself, assisted by a council of advisers. Islamic law prevailed in the larger districts in an effort to dispense with traditional law.

With his empire well organized, self-sustaining, and firmly under his control, Askia was able to leave the capital at Gao to embark upon the mandatory Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca in 1496. Askia’s pilgrimage has remained legendary as much for the pomp with which it was carried out as for the marvelous tales to which it gave rise. Thanks to the chronicler Mahmud Kati, who accompanied Askia, that he took with him 1,000 infantrymen, 500 horsemen, and 300,000 pieces of gold valued at 2.5 BILLION dollars.

Askia’s trip to Mecca was as political as it was religious. Once he arrived, he met the Caliph of Egypt, the Pope of the Islamic church so that he may be appointed as his religious representative in West Africa. The Caliph agreed. El-Hajj Askia Mohammed Toure returned to Gao in 1497, with a new title. He was now the Caliph of the Western Sudan, spiritual ruler of all the West African Muslims, and able to completely unify and conquer West Africa’s Muslims.

The Golden Age of Songhai

Having successfully established himself as both the political and spiritual leader of his empire, Askia began his military conquest of West Africa. Songhai had already grown to become the one of the strongest empires in African history, but Askia would expand the empire far beyond what Sunni Ali Ber could have ever hoped to achieve.
He immediately waged a successful jihad against the Mossi of Yatenga; captured Mali; defeated the Fulani and extended the borders farther north than any other Sudanic empire to Taghaza, famous for its salt mines. Years later, he conquered Hausaland and, in a subsequent campaign, seized Agades and Air. This gave him control over the trade routes leading to Tunis, Tripoli, and Egypt. In some territories, the Askia allowed the regional kings to rule as they had before, just as long as they paid tribute. In other territories, the Askia created a parallel post to the local governor called the mondyo (i.e. inspector), who formed the official link to the imperial Songhai government.

These conquests were achieved by expanding his naval power along the Niger river. Dozens of new ports were constructed, along with hundreds of massive warships. The army of Songhai was reorganized in an effort to increase speed of deployment, and a new fully-armored calvary unit was assembled and equipped with lances and archery.

A side benefit of the increase in Songhai naval power was an expansion of trade. Ships carried goods to and from Portugal, the Mediterranean, Cairo, Algiers, Morocco and Baghdad.
During this period, Songhai had reached the heights of glory. It had effectively become the richest, most intelligent, strongest, and the largest empire in African history. Its wealth and might would be the 15th century equivalent of the United States of America.

The Decline and Fall of Askia The Great

Askiatomb 300x199 Askia The Great
The Tomb of Askia the Great

Askia had ascended the throne in his 40s – already an old man. Now, approaching his 80th birthday, Askia had begun to go blind and daft. Unable to conduct the affairs of the crown, Askia was removed from the throne in 1528 by his son Askia Musa. Interestingly, for years, the only people who knew about his blindness were his closest family members and government servants. He requested that it be kept a secret for as long as possible so his countrymen did not start to think he was sickly and weak. He chose his brother, Omar Konzagho, to act as his spokesperson so that no one directly saw Askia’s face.
Askia’s sons began a mad power grab for the kingdom that Askia the Great had built, as the old man quietly faded from life. First, Faria Mousa revolted against his father, forcing Askia to abdicate the throne completely. Faria was replaced by Benkan who took possession of the entire palace and exiled the old man to an island on the Niger River.

Legend has it that a loyal son of Askia named Ismail traveled to the island to see his father. Askia felt the muscular arm of Ismail and asked him how it was possible that one so strong permitted his aged father to be “eaten by mosquitoes and leapt on by frogs.” When Ismail replied that he had no money to make war, Askia directed him to a spot where he had hidden a treasure. Telling him the names of those who could be counted on for support, Askia dictated a plan of battle. Ismail was victorious and Askia returned to the palace.

In 1538 at the age of 96, Askia the Great, one of the greatest scholars, generals, politicians, and leaders in African history, passed into legend. He is buried in a step pyramid in the heart of Timbuktu. It is only through the works listed below  that his legend lives on.


African Glory: The Story of Vanished Negro Civilizations , J. C. Degraft-Johnson. Black Classic Press, 1986.
Africans and Their History, Joseph E. Harris. Penguin USA, second revised edition, 1998.
Ancient African Kingdoms, Margaret Shinnie. E. Arnold.
General History of Africa, Vol. IV: Africa from the Twelfth to Sixteenth Century, UNESCO. University of California Press, 1986.
A Glorious Age in Africa: The Story of Three Great African Empires, Daniel Chu and Elliott P. Skinner. Africa World Press, 1990.
Cambridge History of Africa, Vol. 2, J.D. Fage (ed.). Cambridge University Press, 1979.
The Lost Cities of Africa, Basil Davidson. Little, Brown & Co., 1959.
The Royal Kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay: Life in Medieval Africa, Patricia and Fredrick McKissack. Henry Holt, 1995.


Just to let ya know, even though the title says "African Kings", "African Queens" will be coming soon as well.

More African History to come...